Chapter 13 – The Last Judgment.



The Day of Judgment.

The court of judgment.

The Resurrection of the faithful on Judgment Day / the Last Day

The forming of the judgment.

Heaven and earth will pass away.

Lamentation over Zion.

The eternal existence of all human beings.

Table: Sequence and Duration of events in the Last Days

The Last Judgment: who is "one of the least of these my brothers" in Mt 25,40? / Discourse 99


The assignment to the appropriate time.

The Last Judgment is the last event in the period "end of the world". Before the Last Judgment the Universal Resurrection and the passing away of heaven and earth take place as the last events of this First Creation. Then the resurrected will be judged at the Last Judgment already in heaven before the great white throne and will enter into eternal life or eternal damnation. After the Last Judgment the righteous will enter into the "New Creation" of God in the days of eternity, with a new heaven and a new earth.

(See also Chapter 11: “The end of the world.”)


The Day of Judgment.

The Day of Judgment, as the Last Judgment is also called in the Scriptures, is the "clean break" with the First Creation so to speak. For men it is the moment when it is decided whether they go to life through the narrow gate or to damnation on the broad way.

For the gate is small and the way is narrow that leads to life, and there are few who find it.

Mt 7,13 "Enter through the narrow gate; for the gate is wide and the way is broad that leads to destruction, and there are many who enter through it. 7,14 "For the gate is small and the way is narrow that leads to life, and there are few who find it. Mt 7,13–14;


However, the decision for the one or the other way was taken by each individual already during his lifetime and it cannot be changed any more. Now it is only a "becoming evident" as Paul also calls it below, in 1Cor 3,13. It is the fire of judgment which will test all things. And it is, of course, the behavior of men during their lifetimes, which is put to the test here.

For the day will show it because it is to be revealed with fire.

1Cor 3,11For no man can lay a foundation other than the one which is laid, which is Jesus Christ. 3,12 Now if any man builds on the foundation with gold, silver, precious stones, wood, hay, straw, 3,13 each man’s work will become evident; for the day will show it because it is to be revealed with fire, and the fire itself will test the quality of each man’s work. 1Cor 3,11–13;


Mind you: What matters here are not only the deeds. What actually matters is the lifelong behavior and attitude of each individual. What he thought, what he believed, what he wished, what he damned, what he hoped, what he wanted, what he loved, and what he condemned. All these immaterial attitudes of mind are tested by the fire with the "materialized" parts – that is to say the parts which were turned into deeds. And the fire will show the quality of each man's work.

But as Paul tells us, there is a "foundation" which is "fireproof". It is the foundation that also Paul laid with his disciples: Jesus Christ.

What does this mean now? It means that all human thinking and acting which has its origin in the belief in Jesus Christ, in the love to our Lord, will stand up to this test and stand before the Judgment of God. All that we thought and did in our life in the faith in our Lord Jesus and for his sake, has this foundation. And this is also the reason why this judgment has been handed over to the Son. He was man himself, he knows our thoughts and therefore he is able to grant fair judgment.

All judgment has been given to the Son.

Now, the situation is, however, not that God, the Father, is not able to judge. But he has given all judgment to the Son. The one who died for all men on the cross, who brought salvation for men, he shall now also judge these men whether they have accepted this salvation or not.

God has fixed a day in which He will judge the world in righteousness through His Son.

Acts 17,30 "Therefore having overlooked the times of ignorance, God is now declaring to men that all people everywhere should repent, 17,31 because He has fixed a day in which He will judge the world in righteousness through a Man whom He has appointed, having furnished proof to all men by raising Him from the dead." Acts 17,30–31;

For the Father does not judge anyone, but he has given all judgment to the Son.

Jn 5,19 Therefore Jesus answered and was saying to them, "Truly, truly, I say to you, the Son can do nothing of Himself, unless it is something He sees the Father doing; for whatever the Father does, these things the Son also does in like manner.

5,20 "For the Father loves the Son, and shows Him all things that He Himself is doing; and the Father will show Him greater works than these, so that you will marvel. 5,21 "For just as the Father raises the dead and gives them life, even so the Son also gives life to whom He wishes.

5,22 "For not even the Father judges anyone, but He has given all judgment to the Son, 5,23 so that all will honor the Son even as they honor the Father. He who does not honor the Son does not honor the Father who sent Him. 5,24 "Truly, truly, I say to you, he who hears My word, and believes Him who sent Me, has eternal life, and does not come into judgment, but has passed out of death into life.

5,25 "Truly, truly, I say to you, an hour is coming and now is, when the dead will hear the voice of the Son of God, and those who hear will live. 5,26 "For just as the Father has life in Himself, even so He gave to the Son also to have life in Himself; 5,27 and He gave Him authority to execute judgment, because He is the Son of Man. 5,28 "Do not marvel at this; for an hour is coming, in which all who are in the tombs will hear His voice, 5,29 and will come forth; those who did the good deeds to a resurrection of life, those who committed the evil deeds to a resurrection of judgment. 5,30 "I can do nothing on My own initiative. As I hear, I judge; and My judgment is just, because I do not seek My own will, but the will of Him who sent Me. Jn 5,19–30;


In the above text from the Scriptures, Jn 5,19–30, we have several significant statements.

1. The Lord Jesus does not do anything on his own initiative, but he does only what the Father gave him to do. That means when we doubt what the Lord Jesus is doing we are doubting God's acts and God himself.

2. One of the things that the Father gave the Son to do is to give life to those he wishes. Just as the Father raises the dead and gives them life, even so the Son also gives life to whom he wishes.

3. The judgment has been given by the Father to the Son. The Father does not judge anyone. All judgment has been given to the Son. He redeemed the acquittal for all men by his sacrifice on the cross. And also in his judgment he will establish who accepted this acquittal and thus has inherited eternal life, and who has not.

4. An hour is coming when the dead will hear the voice of the Son of God, and those who hear it, will live. By this "hour" in Jn 5,25 the raising from the dead and the Rapture before the Millennium is meant. It is the hour when the voice of the Son of God will ring out in the realm of the dead. It is the call for the raising of the dead. But as it says: only "those who hear will live". So, not all dead will hear the voice of the Lord at this "hour". He will reach only those "in Christ" (1The 4,16) with this call and make them alive. The other dead – righteous and wicked – will continue to stay in Hades until the Universal Resurrection. So, the hour here above, in Jn 5,25, is the hour of the raising from the dead and the Rapture at the return of the Lord, in contrast to the hour of Jn 5,28, where this Universal Resurrection at the end of the world is meant,


Christ the first fruits, after that those who are Christ’s at His coming, then comes the end.

1Cor 15,20But now Christ has been raised from the dead, the first fruits of those who are asleep. 15,21 For since by a man came death, by a man also came the resurrection of the dead. 15,22 For as in Adam all die, so also in Christ all will be made alive. 1 5,23 But each in his own order: Christ the first fruits, after that those who are Christ’s at His coming, 15,24 then comes the end, when He hands over the kingdom to the God and Father, when He has abolished all rule and all authority and power. 1Cor 15,20–24;

The dead in Christ will rise first.

1The 4,15 For this we say to you by the word of the Lord, that we who are alive and remain until the coming of the Lord, will not precede those who have fallen asleep. 4,16 For the Lord Himself will descend from heaven with a shout, with the voice of the archangel and with the trumpet of God, and the dead in Christ will rise first. 1The 4,15–16;

(See also Chapter 06: “The Return of the Lord.”)


The specification "and now is" at the beginning of the statement of Jn 5,25, may seem incomprehensible at the first glance as the raising from the dead and the Rapture will take place only in future, before the Millennium. But by "now" the time of this statement, the time of Jesus and also a resurrection in that time would have to be meant. If we, however, examine the Scriptures thoroughly, we find out that this addendum "and now is" alludes to a further, a third resurrection. We find such an event also in the Scriptures. Although it is not paid much attention to, it is nevertheless biblical reality: The raising of many saints after the raising of the Lord.

The tombs were opened, and many bodies of the saints who had fallen asleep were raised.

Mt 27,50And Jesus cried out again with a loud voice, and yielded up His spirit. 27,51 And behold, the veil of the temple was torn in two from top to bottom; and the earth shook and the rocks were split. 27,52 The tombs were opened, and many bodies of the saints who had fallen asleep were raised; 27,53 and coming out of the tombs after His resurrection they entered the holy city and appeared to many. 27,54 Now the centurion, and those who were with him keeping guard over Jesus, when they saw the earthquake and the things that were happening, became very frightened and said, "Truly this was the Son of God!" Mt 27,50–54;


This first "hour" finds its continuation – as already explained above – in the raising from the dead and in the Rapture at the return of the Lord. Then the dead "in Christ" will hear the voice of their Lord and will rise from the dead. The remaining dead will not hear this voice and will come to life only at the second "hour", at the Universal Resurrection after the one thousand years.

5. The second "hour", when all who are in the tombs will hear his voice. So, not as at the first "hour", when only some, namely his own people, could hear the voice of their Lord, but really   a l l  , who are in the tombs, will hear his voice this time and will resurrect. Hades will not be able to retain any single soul. So, this second "hour" is the Universal Resurrection at the end of the world. And here both the good and the wicked will rise from the dead. Those who did the good deeds will inherit eternal life, those, however, who committed the evil deeds will be put before the Judgment of God.

6. This judgment at the end of the world will be absolutely just. The judge himself vouches for that. The Lord himself says, "I can do nothing on my own initiative". That is to say, even if he wanted to – although we know that he who died for us men quite simply cannot want to do this – but even if he wanted to, he cannot do anything on his own initiative. He says, "As I hear, I judge". What does the Lord Jesus hear here? He "hears" our life. Our deeds. But also our thoughts. The good ones and the bad ones. He hears that we dealt superficially and thoughtlessly with his grace. But he also hears our weeping and our imploring when we have realized our incapability and unkindness toward him. And he will judge us according to that. But also this not according to his will, but according to the will of the Father.


So, the text from Jn 5,29 tells us that at the Universal Resurrection there "will come forth those who did the good deeds to a resurrection of life, those who committed the evil deeds to a resurrection of judgment."


The Resurrection of the faithful on Judgment Day / the Last Day.

Everyone who believes in the Son will have eternal life, and will be raised up on the last day.

Jn 6,39 "This is the will of Him who sent Me, that of all that He has given Me I lose nothing, but raise it up on the last day. 6,40 "For this is the will of My Father, that everyone who beholds the Son and believes in Him will have eternal life, and I Myself will raise him up on the last day." Jn 6,39–40;


In the Scriptures there are a great number of statements on what man has to do in order to be saved. Some are more complicated, some are simpler as far as their contents are concerned. Some of these texts extend over several verses, some are shorter.

Here, in Jn 6,40, we have one of the simplest and shortest texts about the salvation of man. According to this text the one will have eternal life

"who beholds the Son and believes in him".

And it is confirmed to us: "this is the will of the Father".

Everyone who comes to Me and I will raise him up on the last day.

Jn 6,44 "No one can come to Me unless the Father who sent Me draws him; and I will raise him up on the last day. Jn 6,44;


Also this passage from the Scriptures, Jn 6,44, discloses a secret to us. Apart from the statement above that the Lord Jesus will raise the one who believes in him to eternal life on the Last Day, we learn that we do not need to boast about this belief of ours. It is not we who "came" to faith. It is the Father who "drew" us to the Son.

We owe the fact that we became faithful to our heavenly Father alone. And if we want to boast about something, we should boast about the love the Father has shown toward us by having drawn us out of our forlornness and having led us to his Son.

He who eats My flesh and drinks My blood I will raise him up on the last day.

Jn 6,54 "He who eats My flesh and drinks My blood has eternal life, and I will raise him up on the last day. Jn 6,54; 

He who believes in Me will live even if he dies.

Jn 11,23 Jesus said to her, "Your brother will rise again." 11,24 Martha said to Him, "I know that he will rise again in the resurrection on the last day." 11,25 Jesus said to her, "I am the resurrection and the life; he who believes in Me will live even if he dies, 11,26 and everyone who lives and believes in Me will never die. Do you believe this?" Jn 11,23–26;


When there is again and again talk about the "Last Day" in the above passages from the Scriptures, the Universal Resurrection at the end of the world is meant by that. Luther translated the Greek "last day" with "recent day" which is misleading.

(See also Discourse 95: “Blessed are they who did not see, and yet believed.”)


The Resurrection of the unfaithful.

As already mentioned before, in this Universal Resurrection actually all men who have died up to that time – that is to say also the godless and impenitent – will come to life and will be put before judgment.

And will come forth; those who committed the evil deeds to a resurrection of judgment.

Jn 5,28 "Do not marvel at this; for an hour is coming, in which all who are in the tombs will hear His voice, 5,29 and will come forth; those who did the good deeds to a resurrection of life, those who committed the evil deeds to a resurrection of judgment. Jn 5,28–29;

He who rejects Me; the word I spoke is what will judge him at the last day.

Jn 12,44 And Jesus cried out and said, "He who believes in Me, does not believe in Me but in Him who sent Me. 12,45 "He who sees Me sees the One who sent Me. 12,46 "I have come as Light into the world, so that everyone who believes in Me will not remain in darkness. 12,47 "If anyone hears My sayings and does not keep them, I do not judge him; for I did not come to judge the world, but to save the world.

12,48 "He who rejects Me and does not receive My sayings, has one who judges him; the word I spoke is what will judge him at the last day. 12,49 "For I did not speak on My own initiative, but the Father Himself who sent Me has given Me a commandment as to what to say and what to speak. 1250 "I know that His commandment is eternal life; therefore the things I speak, I speak just as the Father has told Me." Jn 12,44–50;

These will go away into eternal punishment.

Mt 25,45 “Then He will answer them, ‘Truly I say to you, to the extent that you did not do it to one of the least of these, you did not do it to Me.’ 25,46 These will go away into eternal punishment, but the righteous into eternal life.” Mt 25,45-46;

All those who commit lawlessness they will throw them into the furnace of fire.

Mt 13,41 "The Son of Man will send forth His angels, and they will gather out of His kingdom all stumbling blocks, and those who commit lawlessness, 13,42 and will throw them into the furnace of fire; in that place there will be weeping and gnashing of teeth. 13,43 "Then the righteous will shine forth as the sun in the kingdom of their Father. He who has ears, let him hear. Mt 13,41–43;


We found out at the beginning that the Lord does not judge on his own initiative. Although the judgment is given to the Son, he judges "as he hears", and his judgment is just.

He himself laid the foundation for this judgment, when he was on the earth. In those days he did not come as a judge, but as the Savior. He showed us the way to our salvation. Nobody can say any more he did not know it. The offer of salvation has been spread all over the world. Our answer to this offer will decide on our future fate on the Last Day. If we accepted this offer, we are saved. If we rejected it, this rejection will be our condemnation. Therefore the judgment has in fact already been passed for a long time at this Last Judgment. Only the facts are once again recapitulated and stated. This is also why the Lord says, "As I hear, I judge.".

For this purpose the books are opened. There are, as we will see below, in Rev 20,11–15, two different kinds of books. On the one hand the "books of the deeds", in which the deeds of men are recorded. On the other hand the "Book of Life". In this "Book of the Lamb" as it is also called, all those are registered who accepted the offer of God in their lives, the belief in his Son Jesus Christ. And those who are not registered in that Book of Life, are condemned, even if they had to show gigantic heaps of good deeds to their credit.

(See also Chapter 12: “The Resurrection.”)


The court of judgment.

Christ is the judge.

Just as above, in Mt 13,41, where the Lord is speaking of "his kingdom", the Millennium and thus confirms that he will be king and ruler in this kingdom, he also speaks here below, in Mt 25,34.40, of himself as the "king" who answers the righteous. And as there is only one Judgment in the Millennium, namely at the end of this period, it must be the Last Judgment here.

These remarks are not quite unimportant because these passages from the Scriptures (Mt 25,32 and others) are again and again misinterpreted as the "judgment upon nations" among the living men before the Millennium. But even further sound reasons are speaking against this. So, we can draw a clear parallel on the basis of the text of Mt 25,32 where there is talk about the "separation" of the evil ones from among the righteous to Mt 13:49 where the wicked are separated from the righteous as well. And here, in Mt 13,49, the Lord expressly points out that here the "end of the world" is meant. The same connection can be seen in Mt 25,41 and Mt 13,40.

(See also Table 13: “The judgment upon the resurrected nations.”)


So, no man will enter neither into eternal life nor into eternal punishment before the Millennium – with the exception of the faithful who were raised from the dead before the Rapture. This happens only after the Universal Resurrection and the Last Judgment, here, at the end of the world.

As for the rest, one can proceed from the assumption that wherever there is talk about "eternal fire", "lake of fire" etc., the great Judgment upon all men at the end of the Millennium and of the world is meant.

(See also Excursus 04: “Is there a judgment upon nations?”)


The great white throne of the glory of the Son of Man.

He will sit on His glorious throne and judges the gathered nations.

Mt 25,31"But when the Son of Man comes in His glory, and all the angels with Him, then He will sit on His glorious throne. 25,32 "All the nations will be gathered before Him; and He will separate them from one another, as the shepherd separates the sheep from the goats; 25,33 and He will put the sheep on His right, and the goats on the left.

25,34 "Then the King will say to those on His right, ‘Come, you who are blessed of My Father, inherit the kingdom prepared for you from the foundation of the world. 25,35 ‘For I was hungry, and you gave Me something to eat; I was thirsty, and you gave Me something to drink; I was a stranger, and you invited Me in; 25,36 naked, and you clothed Me; I was sick, and you visited Me; I was in prison, and you came to Me.’

25,37 "Then the righteous will answer Him, ‘Lord, when did we see You hungry, and feed You, or thirsty, and give You something to drink? 25,38 ‘And when did we see You a stranger, and invite You in, or naked, and clothe You? 25,39 ‘When did we see You sick, or in prison, and come to You?’ 25,40 "The King will answer and say to them, ‘Truly I say to you, to the extent that you did it to one of these brothers of Mine, even the least of them, you did it to Me.’ Mt 25,31–40;

In the regeneration when the Son of Man will sit on His glorious throne.

Mt 19,28 And Jesus said to them, "Truly I say to you, that you who have followed Me, in the regeneration when the Son of Man will sit on His glorious throne, you also shall sit upon twelve thrones, judging the twelve tribes of Israel. Mt 19,28;

The Son of Man is going to come in the glory of His Father with His angels.

Mt 16,27 "For the Son of Man is going to come in the glory of His Father with His angels, and will then repay every man according to his deeds. Mt 16,27;

Before the great white throne the dead were judged.

Rev 20,11 Then I saw a great white throne and Him who sat upon it, from whose presence earth and heaven fled away, and no place was found for them. 20,12 And I saw the dead, the great and the small, standing before the throne, and books were opened; and another book was opened, which is the book of life; and the dead were judged from the things which were written in the books, according to their deeds. Rev 20,11–12;


As we can gather from the above passages from the Scriptures, the "glorious throne" of the Son of Man and the "great white throne" from Rev 20,11 are identical. It is the throne of the Last Judgment, and the Lord Jesus will sit upon it, judging the resurrected dead and repaying everyone according to his deeds.

God, the Father, gave this judgment to the Son because he is the "Son of Man". That means because he himself became man and was man and also died as man. He endured all sufferings a man could endure. No man could say to him, "You do not know what I have gone through". He is the fair judge and he will judge justly.

(See also Table 07: “The two comings of the Lord.”)


For we will all stand before the judgment seat of Christ.

Rom 14,8 For if we live, we live for the Lord, or if we die, we die for the Lord; therefore whether we live or die, we are the Lord’s. 14,9 For to this end Christ died and lived again, that He might be Lord both of the dead and of the living. 14,10 But you, why do you judge your brother? Or you again, why do you regard your brother with contempt? For we will all stand before the judgment seat of Christ.

14,11 For it is written, "as I live, says the LORD, every knee shall bow to Me, and every tongue shall give praise to God." 14,12 So then each one of us will give an account of himself to God. Rom 14, 8–12;

For we must all appear before the judgment seat of Christ.

2Cor 5,8 We are of good courage, I say, and prefer rather to be absent from the body and to be at home with the Lord. 5,9 Therefore we also have as our ambition, whether at home or absent, to be pleasing to Him.

5,10 For we must all appear before the judgment seat of Christ, so that each one may be recompensed for his deeds in the body, according to what he has done, whether good or bad. 2Cor 5, 8–10;

The Lord comes to deal out retribution to those who do not know God and to be glorified in His saints.

2The 1,6 For after all it is only just for God to repay with affliction those who afflict you, 1,7 and to give relief to you who are afflicted and to us as well when the Lord Jesus will be revealed from heaven with His mighty angels in flaming fire, 1,8 dealing out retribution to those who do not know God and to those who do not obey the gospel of our Lord Jesus. 1,9 These will pay the penalty of eternal destruction, away from the presence of the Lord and from the glory of His power, 1,10 when He comes to be glorified in His saints on that day, and to be marveled at among all who have believed – for our testimony to you was believed. 2The 1, 6–10;

They will give account to Him who is ready to judge the living and the dead.

1Pet 4,4 In all this, they are surprised that you do not run with them into the same excesses of dissipation, and they malign you; 4,5 but they will give account to Him who is ready to judge the living and the dead.

4,6 For the gospel has for this purpose been preached even to those who are dead, that though they are judged in the flesh as men, they may live in the spirit according to the will of God. 1Pet 4, 4– 6;

Christ Jesus, who is to judge the living and the dead.

2Tim 4,1 I solemnly charge you in the presence of God and of Christ Jesus, who is to judge the living and the dead, and by His appearing and His kingdom:

4,2 preach the word; be ready in season and out of season; reprove, rebuke, exhort, with great patience and instruction. 2Tim 4, 1– 2;


The Biblical Trinity

There is just the one and only God in his three authorities: God the Father as the legislative authority, comparable with the legislature in human society; the Holy Spirit as the authority of execution, similar to the political executive arm; and the Son of God as the judicial authority, like the court of justice. God has given human beings the law and the commandments (Ex 24:12), the Holy Spirit registers the extent to which people observe them, but only intervenes when human actions might otherwise contravene God’s plan (2Thess 2:7), and the Son of God will judge every single human being (Jn 5:22) at the Last Judgment.

In this age of quantum entanglement – with its “spooky action at a distance”, as Einstein termed it – the independent spiritual personality of the Father, Son and Holy Spirit, and their simultaneous presence (Jn 14:10-11) in the spirit of the one God (Jn 4:24), can only be a problem for people living today if they are completely uninformed. In addition, the Bible gives us numerous examples of manifestations of spirit in the spirit of human beings (Mk 1:23-25; 5:6-8; Lk 3:24; but also Jn 14:23; 17:26!).

The attempt to explain relations of this nature on the basis of the ancient wisdom of the Fathers of the Church (Council of Nicea etc.) was already erroneous in view of their assertion that the earth is the center of the universe (The Creation.) and might be regarded today as comparable to the attempt to explain quantum mechanics by the laws of classical physics.

The actual reason why the Unitarians reject the Trinity (There is no salvation apart from the Trinity / C H. Spurgeon), is, first of all, the fact that they refuse to accept the divinity of the Son of God, our Lord Jesus Christ. Jesus Christ as God (Ps 45:7-8; Jn 20:28; Phil 2:5-6; 2Pet 1:1; 1Jn 5:20) and even his pre-existence (Gen 1:26; 11:7) not to mention his post-existence with God (Jn 14:23; 17:26!), would call in question their entire false structure of faith with its "human Jesus" as a "faith fighter", "pal" or "model of suffering" and reduce it to absurdity.

But on the other hand the doctrine of the three in one – the Trinity – was interpreted for centuries by the Catholic church according to the whim and "feelings" of the old Church Fathers (Council of Nicea etc.) and not in accordance with the Bible’s statements. As a result it was easy for the representatives of "faith in the one God" – the Unitarians – to question this in the light of the Bible.

But unfortunately the opportunity was missed of studying the Bible in depth and determining what it actually says about the essence of God, his Son and the Holy Spirit – instead, people just made use of superficial arguments to rebut this equally incorrect Trinitarian dogma of the Catholic church.



The saints will judge together with the Lord.

As we see here below, in 1Cor 6,2–3, the Lord does not judge alone. Just as the Father gave him the judgment, also he passes on a part of the judgment. It is the saints who will judge with him. Those people who – during their lifetimes – were given a condescending smile, derided, tormented, and killed by their fellow men because of their faith. These saints will now judge the resurrected and pronounce judgment upon them.

It seems as if each of the saints will judge his own people. We can also realize that by the fact that the Lord tells the Apostles – who were Jews – that they will judge their people, the Israelites. They will also sit on thrones just as the Lord sits on a throne. They will sit on twelve thrones and they will judge the resurrected of the twelve tribes of Israel.

Do you not know that the saints will judge the world?

1Cor 6,2 Or do you not know that the saints will judge the world? If the world is judged by you, are you not competent to constitute the smallest law courts? 6,3 Do you not know that we will judge angels? How much more matters of this life? 1Cor 6, 2– 3;

The Apostles will sit upon twelve thrones, judging the twelve tribes of Israel.

Mt 19,28 And Jesus said to them, "Truly I say to you, that you who have followed Me, in the regeneration when the Son of Man will sit on His glorious throne, you also shall sit upon twelve thrones, judging the twelve tribes of Israel. 19,29 "And everyone who has left houses or brothers or sisters or father or mother or children or farms for My name’s sake, will receive many times as much, and will inherit eternal life. 19,30 "But many who are first will be last; and the last, first. Mt 19,28–30;

In My kingdom you will sit on thrones judging the twelve tribes of Israel.

Lk 22,28 "You are those who have stood by Me in My trials; 22,29 and just as My Father has granted Me a kingdom, I grant you 22,30 that you may eat and drink at My table in My kingdom, and you will sit on thrones judging the twelve tribes of Israel. Lk 22,28–30

He who overcomes, I will grant to him to sit down with Me on My throne.

Rev 3,21 ‘He who overcomes, I will grant to him to sit down with Me on My throne, as I also overcame and sat down with My Father on His throne. Rev 3,21;

The Lord came with His holy ones, to execute judgment upon all, and to convict all the ungodly.

Jude 1,14 It was also about these men that Enoch, in the seventh generation from Adam, prophesied, saying, "Behold, the Lord came with many thousands of His holy ones, 1,15 to execute judgment upon all, and to convict all the ungodly of all their ungodly deeds which they have done in an ungodly way, and of all the harsh things which ungodly sinners have spoken against Him." Jude 14–15;


1The 3,12 and may the Lord cause you to increase and abound in love for one another, and for all people, just as we also do for you; 3,13 so that He may establish your hearts without blame in holiness before our God and Father at the coming of our Lord Jesus with all His saints. Amen. 1The 3,12–13;

The men of Nineveh will stand up with this generation at the judgment, and will condemn it.

Mt 12,41 " The men of Nineveh will stand up with this generation at the judgment, and will condemn it because they repented at the preaching of Jonah; and behold, something greater than Jonah is here.

12,42 "The Queen of the South will rise up with this generation at the judgment and will condemn it, because she came from the ends of the earth to hear the wisdom of Solomon; and behold, something greater than Solomon is here. Mt 12,41–42;


(See also Discourse 72: “Who are the twenty-four elders in the Revelation of John?”)


The forming of the judgment.

The books of the deeds.

So, according to Rev 20,11 it is the "great white throne", the "glorious throne" of the Son of Man before which the dead will be judged. The one who sits on this throne is – without any doubt – the Lord Jesus, as we could find out in the above passages from the Scriptures.

And it says here further, in Rev 20,12, that "books" were opened. These books are also interpreted by some people (e. g. Jehova’s witnesses) as "new commandments of God". They think that men will get new "instructions" in these books. This interpretation is astonishing because immediately afterward, in verse Rev 20,13, an explanation is given at once what is written in these "books". They are the "books of the deeds".

The dead were judged from the things which were written in the books, according to their deeds.

Rev 20,11Then I saw a great white throne and Him who sat upon it, from whose presence earth and heaven fled away, and no place was found for them. 20,12 And I saw the dead, the great and the small, standing before the throne, and books were opened; and another book was opened, which is the book of life; and the dead were judged from the things which were written in the books, according to their deeds. 20,13 And the sea gave up the dead which were in it, and death and Hades gave up the dead which were in them; and they were judged, every one of them according to their deeds. Rev 20,11–13;


And now the dead are for the time being judged according to what is written in these books of the deeds. But this is – as we know meanwhile – not the final judgment. There is not yet talk about the lake of fire or the second death here. Maybe a lot of the resurrected may be proud of their "heaps of deeds" here.

Even if in between the hint is given that the Book of Life was opened as well, we do know from other passages from the Scriptures that the Book of Life or Book of the Lamb, as it is also called, contains only names. In this book the names of all those are "registered" who have the "foundation" which is Jesus Christ. So, the names of all those are recorded in it who adopted the faith in Jesus as the Son of God and the Savior of men during their lifetimes.

This passage from the Scriptures is of particular interest also for the reason that it shows the systematics of this judgment a little bit. Although it would be apparently easier to call out the names straightaway from the Book of Life and thus to nominate the saved and to send the others into eternal fire, first the books of the deeds are opened for the sake of justice and on account of the entries to be found there first an evaluation of the resurrected is made.

The Lord comes with His reward, to render to every man according to what he has done.

Rev 22,12 "Behold, I am coming quickly, and My reward is with Me, to render to every man according to what he has done. Rev 22,12;

He will then repay every man according to his deeds.

Mt 16,27 "For the Son of Man is going to come in the glory of His Father with His angels, and will then repay every man according to his deeds. Mt 16,27;

In the day of the righteous judgment of God, He will render to each person according to his deeds.

Rom 2,5 But because of your stubbornness and unrepentant heart you are storing up wrath for yourself in the day of wrath and revelation of the righteous judgment of God, 2,6 who will render to each person according to his deeds: 2,7 to those who by perseverance in doing good seek for glory and honor and immortality, eternal life; 2,8 but to those who are selfishly ambitious and do not obey the truth, but obey unrighteousness, wrath and indignation. 2,9 There will be tribulation and distress for every soul of man who does evil, of the Jew first and also of the Greek, 2,10 but glory and honor and peace to everyone who does good, to the Jew first and also to the Greek. Rom 2, 5–10;

Then each man’s praise will come to him from God.

1Cor 4,5 Therefore do not go on passing judgment before the time, but wait until the Lord comes who will both bring to light the things hidden in the darkness and disclose the motives of men’s hearts; and then each man’s praise will come to him from God. 1Cor 4, 5;

For God will bring every act to judgment, everything which is hidden, whether it is good or evil.

Ecc 12,13The conclusion, when all has been heard, is: fear God and keep His commandments, because this applies to every person. 12,14 For God will bring every act to judgment, everything which is hidden, whether it is good or evil. Ecc 12,13–14;


The judgment of these deeds is, however, not subject to any quantitative criteria. The decisive criteria is not how much was done but because of what motives these deeds were done. But how should something like that be measured? We people often do not even succeed in finding out the motives for our own actions clearly.

In the spiritual dimension of God this is, however, no problem. On the Day of Judgment each individual action of each individual man will appear before him with its spiritual contents – that is to say the causal motive for its execution. Then a spiritual fire will sweep over all these deeds and will burn down deeds which did not have the faith in Jesus as foundation.

But also those deeds which are based on the foundation of the faith in the Lord, will not all be able to withstand this fire. Paul explains this to us in 1Cor 3,11–15:

For the day will show it because it is to be revealed with fire.

1Cor 3,11For no man can lay a foundation other than the one which is laid, which is Jesus Christ. 3,12 Now if any man builds on the foundation with gold, silver, precious stones, wood, hay, straw, 3,13 each man’s work will become evident; for the day will show it because it is to be revealed with fire, and the fire itself will test the quality of each man’s work.

3,14 If any man’s work which he has built on it remains, he will receive a reward. 3,15 If any man’s work is burned up, he will suffer loss; but he himself will be saved, yet so as through fire. 1Cor 3,11–15;


If we take a look at the statements above, in Rev 20,11–13, it seems that at that time obviously no separation of the wicked from the righteous has taken place yet. So, first the deeds of all resurrected – irrespective of the fact whether they were faithful or not – are first subjected to a test and assigned to them. As we learn then here, in 1Cor 3,14, this can entail strange situations.

Paul writes here to the church in Corinth, that is to say to faithful. And three verses before he also points out that he is speaking to those who have the "foundation", which has been laid – namely "laid" by him, Paul. And this foundation is Jesus Christ. So, he is speaking of the faithful or, in order to quote Rev 20,12, those who are registered in the Book of Life. So, these are people who are saved in any case and who will enter into eternal life. And now Paul writes that among these faithful there will be such persons whose deeds will all burn down. Their deeds were of wood, hay or straw and therefore went up in flames. Now they are standing there empty–handed.

And it can be also assumed that this situation has its counterpart with the unfaithful. For their deeds are first tested as well. And if one pursues the approach of Paul further, there may be on the other hand also here people who have to present heaps of deeds. During their lifetimes they were unselfish and helped other people with all their strength and supported them. However, not for the sake of Jesus, but because they had a social attitude or because they wanted to make themselves a name as benefactors. They might have even sacrificed their entire property and spent their whole lives helping the poor and the needy. But they did not think of Jesus when they were doing that. They were lacking the faith in him.

If you practice your righteousness before men you have no reward with your Father who is in heaven.

Mt 6,1" Beware of practicing your righteousness before men to be noticed by them; otherwise you have no reward with your Father who is in heaven. 6,2 "So when you give to the poor, do not sound a trumpet before you, as the hypocrites do in the synagogues and in the streets, so that they may be honored by men. Truly I say to you, they have their reward in full. 6,3 "But when you give to the poor, do not let your left hand know what your right hand is doing, 6,4 so that your giving will be in secret; and your Father who sees what is done in secret will reward you. Mt 6, 1– 4;

The Book of Life.

Then it says, however: "and another book was opened". It is the Book of Life, also called the Book of the Lamb. And now it is checked who is registered in this Book of Life. Those whose names are found written in the Book of Life, are allowed to enter into eternal life, to get to the Father and to the Son. And although there will hardly be any faithful who have not already been written in the books of the deeds with their deeds, there will be nevertheless some – as we have seen above – who have nothing to show for themselves except for their faith.

But when the Book of Life is checked it becomes apparent that the names of these people are registered in the book. And although all their deeds burned down, so, although they did not even accomplish a single deed in their lives which had its origin in their faith, they nevertheless succeeded in one thing: they believed in the Son of God, in Jesus Christ as their Savior and Redeemer. So they will – as Paul puts it – "suffer loss", but nevertheless "be saved, yet so as through fire".

Here we see quite clearly the two criteria according to which we are judged at the judgment:

1. If we adopted the faith in Jesus Christ as our Redeemer during our lifetime and

2. if our actions – our deeds – are based on this faith of ours.


And if we now check ourselves, how many and which of our daily actions are done in memory of our Lord, there will probably be not many who can be satisfied with the result.

The other resurrected, however, whose names are not written in the book, are not granted any mercy any more. The time of mercy is over. During their lifetimes they had innumerable possibilities to accept this mercy. They always had to do something "better". It was their free will to renounce this offer of mercy. They will suffer eternal damnation, separated from God and his love.

If anyone’s name was not found written in the book of life, he was thrown into the lake of fire.

Rev 20,13 And the sea gave up the dead which were in it, and death and Hades gave up the dead which were in them; and they were judged, every one of them according to their deeds. 20,14 Then death and Hades were thrown into the lake of fire. This is the second death, the lake of fire. 20,15 And if anyone’s name was not found written in the book of life, he was thrown into the lake of fire. Rev 20,13–15;


Although now this consequence may seem to be very hard at a superficial glance, we see very soon the inexcusable superficiality, stupidity or also malice of these men when we compare which condition would have been necessary in order to avoid eternal damnation.

He who believes in the Son has eternal life.

Jn 3,34 "For He whom God has sent speaks the words of God; for He gives the Spirit without measure. 3,35 "The Father loves the Son and has given all things into His hand. 3,36 "He who believes in the Son has eternal life; but he who does not obey the Son will not see life, but the wrath of God abides on him." Jn 3,34–36;


So, it is not an incomprehensible demand, no unjustifiable expenditure, no unreasonable request which would have been expected of these people here. It is purely and solely the "faith in the Son" which is mentioned as condition for eternal life. No wealth, intelligence, no special gifts of the mind or any special skills are required for that. No special descent, education or position is required either. The only thing that is required is the simple–heartedness to believe in the things the Lord left us.

Everyone who confesses the Son of Man, will also be confessed by him before his Father.

Everyone who confesses Me before men, I will also confess him before My Father who is in heaven.

Mt 10,32 " Therefore everyone who confesses Me before men, I will also confess him before My Father who is in heaven. 10,33 "But whoever denies Me before men, I will also deny him before My Father who is in heaven. Mt 10,32–33;

Whoever is ashamed of Me and My words, the Son of Man will also be ashamed.

Mk 8,38 "For whoever is ashamed of Me and My words in this adulterous and sinful generation, the Son of Man will also be ashamed of him when He comes in the glory of His Father with the holy angels." Mk 8,38;

The day of the harvest.

We have here the "day of the harvest". While the wheat (the righteous) below, in Rev 14,14–16, is reaped by the Son of Man himself with a sickle, it is the angel with the power over the fire who orders to cut the grapes (the godless) with a sharp sickle from the vine of the earth and to throw them into the wine press of the wrath of God. And if before the Millennium first the elect were gathered and the remaining godless were then left to the catastrophes of the Day of the Lord, here, after the harvest (the Resurrection of all men), the angels will in contrary first separate the tares (the wicked) from the wheat (from the righteous) and throw them into the furnace of fire. The righteous will then enter into the eternal kingdom of the Father, into the heavenly Jerusalem.

First gather up the tares and bind them in bundles to burn them up.

Mt 13,24Jesus presented another parable to them, saying, "The kingdom of heaven may be compared to a man who sowed good seed in his field. 13,25 "But while his men were sleeping, his enemy came and sowed tares among the wheat, and went away. 13,26 "But when the wheat sprouted and bore grain, then the tares became evident also. 13,27 "The slaves of the landowner came and said to him, ‘Sir, did you not sow good seed in your field? How then does it have tares?’ 13,28 "And he said to them, ‘An enemy has done this!’ The slaves said to him, ‘Do you want us, then, to go and gather them up?’

13,29 "But he said, ‘No; for while you are gathering up the tares, you may uproot the wheat with them.

13,30 ‘Allow both to grow together until the harvest; and in the time of the harvest I will say to the reapers, "First gather up the tares and bind them in bundles to burn them up; but gather the wheat into my barn."‘" Mt 13,24–30;

The harvest is the end of the world; and the reapers are angels.

Mt 13,36 Then He left the crowds and went into the house. And His disciples came to Him and said, "Explain to us the parable of the tares of the field." 13,37 And He said, "The one who sows the good seed is the Son of Man,

13,38 and the field is the world; and as for the good seed, these are the sons of the kingdom; and the tares are the sons of the evil one; 13,39 and the enemy who sowed them is the devil, and the harvest is the end of the world; and the reapers are angels. 13,40 "So just as the tares are gathered up and burned with fire, so shall it be at the end of the world.

13,41 "The Son of Man will send forth His angels, and they will gather out of His kingdom all stumbling blocks, and those who commit lawlessness, 13,42 and will throw them into the furnace of fire; in that place there will be weeping and gnashing of teeth. 13,43 "Then the righteous will shine forth as the sun in the kingdom of their Father. He who has ears, let him hear. Mt 13,36–43;

At the end of the world the angels will come forth and take out the wicked from among the righteous.

Mt 13,47 "Again, the kingdom of heaven is like a dragnet cast into the sea, and gathering fish of every kind; 13,48 and when it was filled, they drew it up on the beach; and they sat down and gathered the good fish into containers, but the bad they threw away.

13,49 "So it will be at the end of the world; the angels will come forth and take out the wicked from among the righteous, 13,50 and will throw them into the furnace of fire; in that place there will be weeping and gnashing of teeth. 13,51 "Have you understood all these things?" They said to Him, "Yes." 13,52 And Jesus said to them, "Therefore every scribe who has become a disciple of the kingdom of heaven is like a head of a household, who brings out of his treasure things new and old." Mt 13,47–52;

The hour to reap has come, because the harvest of the earth is ripe.

Rev 14,14 Then I looked, and behold, a white cloud, and sitting on the cloud was one like a son of man, having a golden crown on His head and a sharp sickle in His hand.14,15 And another angel came out of the temple, crying out with a loud voice to Him who sat on the cloud, "Put in your sickle and reap, for the hour to reap has come, because the harvest of the earth is ripe." 14,16 Then He who sat on the cloud swung His sickle over the earth, and the earth was reaped.

14,17 And another angel came out of the temple which is in heaven, and he also had a sharp sickle. 14,18 Then another angel, the one who has power over fire, came out from the altar; and he called with a loud voice to him who had the sharp sickle, saying, "Put in your sharp sickle and gather the clusters from the vine of the earth, because her grapes are ripe." 14,19 So the angel swung his sickle to the earth and gathered the clusters from the vine of the earth, and threw them into the great wine press of the wrath of God. 14,20 And the wine press was trodden outside the city, and blood came out from the wine press, up to the horses’ bridles, for a distance of two hundred miles. Rev 14,14–20;


The above texts show very clearly what many people do not want to see, namely that this event takes place at the end of the Millennium – that is to say at the end of the world – and not before the Millennium. Above, in Mt 13,39 it says expressly, "The harvest is the end of the world; and the reapers are angels."

(See also Table 12: “The earthly and the heavenly Jerusalem.”)


Furthermore, it says in

Mt 13,41 "The Son of Man will send forth His angels, and they will gather out of His kingdom all stumbling blocks, and those who commit lawlessness Mt 13,41;


This kingdom is the Millennium and the ruler in this kingdom will be the Lord Jesus. Therefore the Lord says here, "out of his kingdom", whereas two verses later, when he is speaking about the remaining righteous who will then enter into the eternal Kingdom in the New Creation, into the heavenly Jerusalem, he is speaking of "the kingdom of their Father":

Mt 13,43 "Then the righteous will shine forth as the sun in the kingdom of their Father. He who has ears, let him hear. Mt 13,43;


And in order to invalidate now also the argument which thinks that at the First Resurrection, at the beginning of the Millennium, not only the martyrs, but all righteous would resurrect, and at the end of the world, at the Universal Resurrection, only the unrighteous, we have in Mt 13,49 the unambiguous statement, "So it will be at the end of the world; the angels will come forth and take out the wicked from among the righteous". As the text already says, we are here at the end of the world, at the Last Judgment. And if there were not any righteous left any more at that time, no "separation" would be required either.

(See also Discourse 02: „The earthly and the heavenly Jerusalem.”)


The unrighteous will go away into eternal punishment.

These will go away into eternal punishment, but the righteous into eternal life.

Mt 25,41 "Then He will also say to those on His left, ‘Depart from Me, accursed ones, into the eternal fire which has been prepared for the devil and his angels; 25,42 for I was hungry, and you gave Me nothing to eat; I was thirsty, and you gave Me nothing to drink; 25,43 I was a stranger, and you did not invite Me in; naked, and you did not clothe Me; sick, and in prison, and you did not visit Me.’

25,44 "Then they themselves also will answer, ‘Lord, when did we see You hungry, or thirsty, or a stranger, or naked, or sick, or in prison, and did not take care of You?’ 25,45 "Then He will answer them, ‘Truly I say to you, to the extent that you did not do it to one of the least of these, you did not do it to Me.’ 25,46 "These will go away into eternal punishment, but the righteous into eternal life." Mt 25,41–46;

The unrighteous will not inherit the kingdom of God.

1Cor 6,9 Or do you not know that the unrighteous will not inherit the kingdom of God? Do not be deceived; neither fornicators, nor idolaters, nor adulterers, nor effeminate, nor homosexuals, 6,10 nor thieves, nor the covetous, nor drunkards, nor revilers, nor swindlers, will inherit the kingdom of God. 1Cor 6, 9–10;

The wicked will not stand in the judgment.

Ps 1,1How blessed is the man who does not walk in the counsel of the wicked, Nor stand in the path of sinners, Nor sit in the seat of scoffers! 1,2 But his delight is in the law of the LORD, And in His law he meditates day and night. 1,3 He will be like a tree firmly planted by streams of water, Which yields its fruit in its season And its leaf does not wither; And in whatever he does, he prospers.

1,4 The wicked are not so, But they are like chaff which the wind drives away.

1,5 Therefore the wicked will not stand in the judgment, Nor sinners in the assembly of the righteous. 1,6 For the LORD knows the way of the righteous, But the way of the wicked will perish. Ps 1, 1– 6;

He who rejects Me, has one who judges him; the word I spoke is what will judge him at the last day.

Jn 12,48 "He who rejects Me and does not receive My sayings, has one who judges him; the word I spoke is what will judge him at the last day. 12,49 "For I did not speak on My own initiative, but the Father Himself who sent Me has given Me a commandment as to what to say and what to speak. 12,50 "I know that His commandment is eternal life; therefore the things I speak, I speak just as the Father has told Me." Jn 12,48–50;

He who does not obey the Son will not see life, but the wrath of God abides on him.

Jn 3,34 "For He whom God has sent speaks the words of God; for He gives the Spirit without measure. 3,35 "The Father loves the Son and has given all things into His hand. 3,36 "He who believes in the Son has eternal life; but he who does not obey the Son will not see life, but the wrath of God abides on him." Jn 3,34–36;

He who does not have the Son of God does not have the life.

1Jn 5,11 And the testimony is this, that God has given us eternal life, and this life is in His Son. 5,12 He who has the Son has the life; he who does not have the Son of God does not have the life. 1Jn 5,11–12;

If anyone’s name was not found written in the book of life, he was thrown into the lake of fire.

Rev 20,15 And if anyone’s name was not found written in the book of life, he was thrown into the lake of fire. Rev 20,15;

The unbelieving and idolaters and all liars, their part will be in the lake that burns with fire.

Rev 21,7 "He who overcomes will inherit these things, and I will be his God and he will be My son. 1,8 "But for the cowardly and unbelieving and abominable and murderers and immoral persons and sorcerers and idolaters and all liars, their part will be in the lake that burns with fire and brimstone, which is the second death." Rev 21, 7– 8;

The sons of the kingdom will be cast out into the darkness.

Also the "sons of the kingdom", that is to say the Israelites, to whom the kingdom was promised originally, who, however, rejected the Messiah at his coming into this world and who have been rejecting him still until today, destroyed their promise by doing so and will not enter into eternal life. With the exception of those "remaining" who will convert at the return of the Lord and will form the new Israel in the Millennium.

The kingdom of God will be taken away from you and given to a people, producing the fruit of it.

Mt 21,42 Jesus said to them, "Did you never read in the Scriptures, ‘the stone which the builders rejected, this became the chief corner stone; this came about from the Lord, and it is marvelous in our eyes’?

21,43 "Therefore I say to you, the kingdom of God will be taken away from you and given to a people, producing the fruit of it. 21,44 "And he who falls on this stone will be broken to pieces; but on whomever it falls, it will scatter him like dust." Mt 21,42–44;

The sons of the kingdom will be cast out into the outer darkness.

Mt 8,11 "I say to you that many will come from east and west, and recline at the table with Abraham, Isaac and Jacob in the kingdom of heaven; 8,12 but the sons of the kingdom will be cast out into the outer darkness; in that place there will be weeping and gnashing of teeth." Mt 8,11–12;

Some are last who will be first and some are first who will be last.

Lk 13,25 "Once the head of the house gets up and shuts the door, and you begin to stand outside and knock on the door, saying, ‘Lord, open up to us!’ then He will answer and say to you, ‘I do not know where you are from.’ 13,26 "Then you will begin to say, ‘We ate and drank in Your presence, and You taught in our streets’; 13,27 and He will say, ‘I tell you, I do not know where you are from; depart form Me, all you evildoers.’

13,28 "In that place there will be weeping and gnashing of teeth when you see Abraham and Isaac and Jacob and all the prophets in the kingdom of God, but yourselves being thrown out. 13,29 "And they will come from east and west and from north and south, and will recline at the table in the kingdom of God. 13,30 "And behold, some are last who will be first and some are first who will be last." Lk 13,25–30;

Mt 19,29 "And everyone who has left houses or brothers or sisters or father or mother or children or farms for My name’s sake, will receive many times as much, and will inherit eternal life. 19,30 "But many who are first will be last; and the last, first. Mt 19,29–30;




Lamentation over Zion


LAMENTATION OVER ZION.

Zion, you joy and bride of God (Isa 62:5), what have you made of yourself? You have betrayed your husband (Hos 2:18-22), his Son – who was sent to bring you salvation – you had put to death (Mt 26:65-68) and so broke his covenant (Jer 31:31-33). Now God has dissolved the covenant with you and given you over to your sins. Your Temple is annihilated, the sacrificial altar is destroyed. In the place where you effected the forgiveness and the grace of your God every day (Ex 29:38-39), not one stone has remained on another (Mt 24:1-2). Since then your sons and daughters have all died in their sins (Jn 8:24) and go to damnation.
What have you made of yourself, daughter of Zion?

--- + ---

Your children have been called, but they do not answer. They do not want to acknowledge that they are abandoned (Mt 23:37) and God-less (1Jn 2:23; Jn 15:23). They do not want to convert and do penance, so that their God might have mercy on them and forgive them in his grace (Gal 5:4), when they cry out to the Son: “Blessed is he who comes in the name of the Lord!” (Mt 23:38-39). Instead they have made themselves new commandments in accordance with their own wishes (Jer 8:7-8; 1Ki 9:6-8) and think that this puts them in a position to serve God (Isa 1:15). 
What have you made of yourself, daughter of Zion?

--- + ---

Who has ever heard anything like this: Israel, the people chosen by God, has rejected its God (Eze 5:5-8). They no longer listen to his words, but rely on their own strength and understanding. They did not want to wait for their God to restore them to their country from all over the world, but gathered together of their own accord. They have taken possession of the country with war and murder – the country which God wanted to entrust to them again without war, without the bow or the sword (Hos 1:7; Mic 2:12-13). So they have again made a golden calf for themselves and dance around it as in the old times on the mountain of Horeb. 
What have you made of yourself, daughter of Zion?

--- + ---

And there is worse to come. They did not receive the Son who came in the name of their God, his Father. They will then receive another, who comes in his own name (Jn 5:41-43). He will give them power and influence and lead them completely astray and away from their God. This seducer will rebuild the Temple and take his seat in it (2Thes 2:3-4). He will proclaim himself as God and they will pray to him as their Messiah (Rev 2:9; Mt 23:34; Persecution of Christians). 
This was already prophesied to them by Moses: 
Deut 31,29 “For I know that after my death you will act corruptly and turn from the way which I have commanded you; and evil will befall you in the latter days, for you will do that which is evil in the sight of the LORD, provoking Him to anger with the work of your hands.” Deut 31,29

--- + ---

And so in the end you have to be dispersed again, and it will happen, as it is written:

Deut 28,62 "Then you shall be left few in number, whereas you were as numerous as the stars of heaven, because you did not obey the LORD your God. 28,63 "It shall come about that as the LORD delighted over you to prosper you, and multiply you, so the LORD will delight over you to make you perish and destroy you; and you will be torn from the land where you are entering to possess it.

28,64 "Moreover, the LORD will scatter you among all peoples, from one end of the earth to the other end of the earth; and there you shall serve other gods, wood and stone, which you or your fathers have not known. 28,65 "Among those nations you shall find no rest, and there will be no resting place for the sole of your foot; but there the LORD will give you a trembling heart, failing of eyes, and despair of soul. 28,66 "So your life shall hang in doubt before you; and you will be in dread night and day, and shall have no assurance of your life. 28,67 "In the morning you shall say, ‘Would that it were evening!’ And at evening you shall say, ‘Would that it were morning!’ because of the dread of your heart which you dread, and for the sight of your eyes which you will see.

28,68 "The LORD will bring you back to Egypt in ships, by the way about which I spoke to you, ‘You will never see it again!’ And there you will offer yourselves for sale to your enemies as male and female slaves, but there will be no buyer."  Deut 28,62-68  *)

Whatever have you made of yourself, daughter of Zion?


*) Unbelievable??  Just as today the Syrians flee from their destroyed country and go to Germany to find a job there, the Israelis are in the end times to flee rom the devastated Israel (Isa 49:19) to Egypt to offer themselves to work there.




Israel in the light of the Bible.


Based on the Old Testament

God has completely taken away his compassion from the house of Israel (Hos 1:6). They are no longer his people (Hos 1:9). Only the house of Judah will be saved by the Lord. Not by war, however, but by his Spirit (Hos 1:7). And only in the Millennium, when the Son of God has entered on his thousand years rule on earth (Hos 1:10, 2:18; Ezk 34:25; Isa 2:4), will the Lord once more accept Israel as his people (Hos 2:23; Jer 31:27-28).

Based on the New Testament

It is God's will that we should listen to his Son (Mt 17:5). This same Son of God has told us that anyone who rejects him rejects God as well (1Jn 2:23; Lk 10:16; Jn 5:22-23. 15:23). The people of Israel today deny the Son of God and abuse him as an impostor and blasphemer. As a result of this denial of the Son, Israel has also rejected the Father and so is a God-less people. (Jn 8:24)


The "Friends of Israel" in the Christian congregations are thus selling their birthright as Disciples of Christ for the lentil stew of a vicarious agent of godless impostors. - For Israel there is no spiritual conversion to their God, and no return to their homeland willed by God, unless they convert to Jesus Christ!! (Mt 23:38-39; Gal 5:4) - (See also Discourse 111)


(See also Discourse 96: „Why believe?”.)


The righteous will enter into eternal life.

He who knows the Father and the Son has eternal life.

Jn 17,1Jesus spoke these things; and lifting up His eyes to heaven, He said, "Father, the hour has come; glorify Your Son, that the Son may glorify You, 17,2 even as You gave Him authority over all flesh, that to all whom You have given Him, He may give eternal life. 17,3 "This is eternal life, that they may know You, the only true God, and Jesus Christ whom You have sent. Jn 17, 1– 3;

He who overcomes for the sake of the Lord, has eternal life in the age to come.

Mk 10,29 Jesus said, "Truly I say to you, there is no one who has left house or brothers or sisters or mother or father or children or farms, for My sake and for the gospel’s sake, 10,30 but that he will receive a hundred times as much now in the present age, houses and brothers and sisters and mothers and children and farms, along with persecutions; and in the age to come, eternal life. Mk 10,29–30;

He who renounces for the sake of the kingdom of God will receive eternal life in the age to come.

Lk 18,28 Peter said, "Behold, we have left our own homes and followed You." 18,29 Ad He said to them, "Truly I say to you, there is no one who has left house or wife or brothers or parents or children, for the sake of the kingdom of God, 18,30 who will not receive many times as much at this time and in the age to come, eternal life." Lk 18,28–30;

Love the Lord your God and your neighbor and you will live.

Lk 10,25 And a lawyer stood up and put Him to the test, saying, "Teacher, what shall I do to inherit eternal life?" 10,26 And He said to him, "What is written in the Law? How does it read to you?" 10,27 And he answered, "you shall love the Lord your God with all your heart, and with all your soul, and with all your strength, and with all your mind, and your neighbor as yourself." 10,28 And He said to him, "You have answered correctly; do this and you will live." Lk 10,25–28;

It is better for you to enter life crippled, than to be unhurt and be cast into the eternal fire.

Mt 18,7"Woe to the world because of its stumbling blocks! For it is inevitable that stumbling blocks come; but woe to that man through whom the stumbling block comes!

18,8 "If your hand or your foot causes you to stumble, cut it off and throw it from you; it is better for you to enter life crippled or lame, than to have two hands or two feet and be cast into the eternal fire.

18,9 "If your eye causes you to stumble, pluck it out and throw it from you. It is better for you to enter life with one eye, than to have two eyes and be cast into the fiery hell. Mt 18, 7– 9;

The free gift of God is eternal life in Christ Jesus our Lord.

Rom 6,22 But now having been freed from sin and enslaved to God, you derive your benefit, resulting in sanctification, and the outcome, eternal life. 6,23 For the wages of sin is death, but the free gift of God is eternal life in Christ Jesus our Lord. Rom 6,22–23;

Wait anxiously for the mercy of our Lord Jesus Christ to eternal life.

Jude 1,20 But you, beloved, building yourselves up on your most holy faith, praying in the Holy Spirit, 1,21 keep yourselves in the love of God, waiting anxiously for the mercy of our Lord Jesus Christ to eternal life. Jude 20–21;

The fire of the judgment.

He will burn up the chaff with unquenchable fire.

Mt 3,10 "The axe is already laid at the root of the trees; therefore every tree that does not bear good fruit is cut down and thrown into the fire. 3,11 "As for me, I baptize you with water for repentance, but He who is coming after me is mightier than I, and I am not fit to remove His sandals; He will baptize you with the Holy Spirit and fire. 3,12 "His winnowing fork is in His hand, and He will thoroughly clear His threshing floor; and He will gather His wheat into the barn, but He will burn up the chaff with unquenchable fire." Mt 3,10–12;

The angels will take out the wicked, and will throw them into the furnace of fire.

Mt 13,47 "Again, the kingdom of heaven is like a dragnet cast into the sea, and gathering fish of every kind; 13,48 and when it was filled, they drew it up on the beach; and they sat down and gathered the good fish into containers, but the bad they threw away.

13,49 "So it will be at the end of the world; the angels will come forth and take out the wicked from among the righteous, 13,50 and will throw them into the furnace of fire; in that place there will be weeping and gnashing of teeth. Mt 13,47–50;

The day is coming, burning like a furnace; and all the arrogant and every evildoer will be burning chaff.

Mal 4,1 "For behold, the day is coming, burning like a furnace; and all the arrogant and every evildoer will be chaff; and the day that is coming will set them ablaze," says the LORD of hosts, "so that it will leave them neither root nor branch." Mal 3,19;

The LORD will come to render His anger with fury and to execute judgment by fire.

Isa 66,15 For behold, the LORD will come in fire And His chariots like the whirlwind, To render His anger with fury, And His rebuke with flames of fire. 66,16 For the LORD will execute judgment by fire And by His sword on all flesh, And those slain by the LORD will be many. Isa 66,15–16;

The day will show it because it is to be revealed with fire.

1Cor 3,11For no man can lay a foundation other than the one which is laid, which is Jesus Christ. 3,12 Now if any man builds on the foundation with gold, silver, precious stones, wood, hay, straw, 3,13 each man’s work will become evident; for the day will show it because it is to be revealed with fire, and the fire itself will test the quality of each man’s work.

3,14 If any man’s work which he has built on it remains, he will receive a reward. 3,15 If any man’s work is burned up, he will suffer loss; but he himself will be saved, yet so as through fire. 1Cor 3,11–15;


Paul is speaking here of the "foundation which is laid, which is Jesus Christ", that means he alludes here to those who have this "foundation", that is to say all faithful Christians.

And here the principle of judgment becomes apparent very clearly: First there must be the foundation, the basis – the faith in the Son of God as our personal Savior. If this foundation was not laid, the greatest and best deeds are completely useless.

In this connection I always remember the theologian, cultural philosopher, and physician who has become famous under the name of the "primeval forest doctor", Albert Schweitzer. This man did almost incredible things in Africa. He saved the lives of thousands of people. And in order to be able to finance his hospital, he came to Europe and gave organ recitals. The money he earned by these concerts was used up to the last cent in his lifework. This man really accumulated a gigantic heap of good deeds. Therefore it makes me all the more sad that – according to his own words – he could not believe in the fact that Jesus is the Son of God. And unless he did not come to faith after all in the end, all his efforts were in vain.


The biggest mistake of all time.

A lot of people share the view of the well known American actor and film producer John Malkovich, who said in a recent interview: “… Life just comes to an end, and then it is over.” – But these people will be surprised when they get to this supposed "over", and suddenly find themselves alive again.

Human beings are created for an eternal existence, and after their deaths all human beings will come back to life in the "rebirth", the Resurrection. But their initial rejoicing will soon turn into terror when many will realize that this situation is one they had completely failed to anticipate while they were alive

This is the biggest mistake of all time – that so many people in the course of their life try to reach such a vast range of possible goals, only to miss out on the biggest realization of their lives:

that they will live for ever and there is a God.
(Rev 21:1-3,5).

In the light of this, the well known evangelist and preacher Wilhelm Busch said to his hearers, “ou don’t need to accept the message I am giving you. You can choose not to convert to Jesus. But just be aware that this means you are choosing hell! You have complete freedom – it’s your choice!” (Discourse 55)



Heaven and earth will pass away.

Also Peter is speaking of this fire at the end of the world, on the Day of Judgment, by which the deeds are tested:

The earth and its works will be burned up.

2Ptr 3,7 But by His word the present heavens and earth are being reserved for fire, kept for the day of judgment and destruction of ungodly men. 3,8 But do not let this one fact escape your notice, beloved, that with the Lord one day is like a thousand years, and a thousand years like one day.

3,9The Lord is not slow about His promise, as some count slowness, but is patient toward you, not wishing for any to perish but for all to come to repentance. 3,10 But the day of the Lord will come like a thief, in which the heavens will pass away with a roar and the elements will be destroyed with intense heat, and the earth and its works will be burned up. 2Pet 3, 7–10;


The judgment upon the fallen angels.

But not only men receive their judgment here. Also the angels, who did not keep their domain in the times before the Flood and have been bound in the abyss, in the prison since that time, will be put before this judgment now.

God did not spare angels when they sinned, but committed them under darkness for judgment.

2Ptr 2,4 For if God did not spare angels when they sinned, but cast them into hell and committed them to pits of darkness, reserved for judgment; 2Pet 2, 4;

Angels who did not keep their own domain, are kept under darkness for the judgment of the great day.

Jude 1,5 Now I desire to remind you, though you know all things once for all, that the Lord, after saving a people out of the land of Egypt, subsequently destroyed those who did not believe. 1,6 And angels who did not keep their own domain, but abandoned their proper abode, He has kept in eternal bonds under darkness for the judgment of the great day, 1,7 just as Sodom and Gomorrah and the cities around them, since they in the same way as these indulged in gross immorality and went after strange flesh, are exhibited as an example in undergoing the punishment of eternal fire. Jude 5-7;


In the text above from Jude 7 we also learn why these angels are lying in chains in prison. Just as the people from Sodom and Gomorrah "went after strange flesh", that is to say practiced sodomy (sexual intercourse with animals), also these angels went after strange flesh before the Flood. As Gen 6,4 tells us below, they came in to the daughters of men and begot children by them, out of whom the species of the giants – Anac's sons – then grew up (Num 13,33), out of whom then later on also the giant Goliath came, who was killed by David.

The sons of God came in to the daughters of men.

1Mo 6,1 Now it came about, when men began to multiply on the face of the earth, and daughters were born to them, 6,2 that the sons of God saw that the daughters of men were beautiful; and they took wives for themselves, whomever they chose.

6,3 Then the LORD said, "My Spirit shall not strive with man forever, because he also is flesh; nevertheless his days shall be one hundred and twenty years."

6,4 The giants were on the earth in those days, and also afterward, when the sons of God came in to the daughters of men, and they bore children to them. Those were the mighty men who were of old, men of renown. Gen 6, 1– 4;

He went and made proclamation to the spirits now in prison.

1Pet 3,18 For Christ also died for sins once for all, the just for the unjust, so that He might bring us to God, having been put to death in the flesh, but made alive in the spirit; 3,19 in which also He went and made proclamation to the spirits now in prison, 3,20 who once were disobedient, when the patience of God kept waiting in the days of Noah, during the construction of the ark, in which a few, that is, eight persons, were brought safely through the water.1Pet 3,18–20;


But the Lord made the offer of mercy also to these angels when he preached the Gospel to the dead in Hades after his death. And each of them who adopted the faith in Jesus Christ, will then here, at the end of the world, at the Last Judgment, be saved "yet so as through fire".

So will the Son of Man be three days and three nights in the heart of the earth.

Mt 12,39 But He answered and said to them, "An evil and adulterous generation craves for a sign; and yet no sign will be given to it but the sign of Jonah the prophet; 12,40 for just as Jonah was three days and three nights in the belly of the sea monster, so will the Son of Man be three days and three nights in the heart of the earth. 12,41 "The men of Nineveh will stand up with this generation at the judgment, and will condemn it because they repented at the preaching of Jonah; and behold, something greater than Jonah is here. Mt 12,39–41;

The gospel has been preached even to those who are dead.

1Pet 4,6 For the gospel has for this purpose been preached even to those who are dead, that though they are judged in the flesh as men, they may live in the spirit according to the will of God. 1Pet 4, 6;


The last enemy that will be abolished is death.

And after all creatures – men and angels – have been judged, also the last enemy, death, will be abolished. And then the Son gives the authority to the Father so that "God may be all in all" in the second, the New Creation.

(See also Excursus 08: “The first and the second death.”)

(See also Chapter 14: “The New Creation.”)


When all things are subjected to Him, then the Son Himself also will be subjected to the Father.

1Cor 15,25 For He must reign until He has put all His enemies under His feet (Ps 110:1). 15,26 The last enemy that will be abolished is death.

15,27 For He has put all things in subjection under His feet (Ps 8:6). But when He says, "All things are put in subjection," it is evident that He is excepted who put all things in subjection to Him.

15,28 When all things are subjected to Him, then the Son Himself also will be subjected to the One who subjected all things to Him, so that God may be all in all. 1Cor 15,25–28;




The eternal existence of all human beings

The eternal existence of every human being.

Every individual human being who leaves the amniotic sac of his or her mother alive in being physically born – who is "born of water" (amniotic fluid), that is to say (Jn 3:5) – receives a human spirit (1Cor 2:11) from God (Jn 4:24) with eternal existence (Mt 25:46). In the first, temporal and earthly part of their existence – in their life, human beings have the possibility of deciding, in complete freedom, without any compulsion and with the help of the spirit given them by God, whether or not they will give this God, the creator of all life, their complete trust and entire love.

After death, the human body returns to the dust from which it was made (Gen 2:7), but their spirit goes to the Kingdom of the Dead (Dan 12:2; 1Pet 3:18-19; 1Cor 15:23-24), where they pass the time until their resurrection in a state resembling sleep (1Thess 4:15-16). 

In the Resurrection (Rom 6:4-5), the "rebirth from the spirit" (1Pet 3:18; Mt 19:28; Jn 3:7), human beings are again given a body (1Cor 15:43-44; Mt 22:30; Jn 3:8; Rom 8:10-11), similar to that of the Son of God after his resurrection (Jn 20:26-27). With this body the human being will then stand at the Last Judgment before the Son of God, who has been given the task by God (Jn 5:22, 26-27) of judging every human being on the basis of their earthly deeds and their decision for or against God while still alive (Rom 2:16).

Anyone who has decided for God and faith in his Son Jesus Christ in the course of his or her life (Jn 17:3) has the possibility of invoking before this court the expiatory death of the Son of God as a vicarious sacrifice for the sins of all humanity, and so atoning for his or her own sins and derelictions against the law of God (Jn 3:16), and so will meet with the mercy of God (Jn 5:24). Those people who have not accepted this faith cannot have their sins forgiven them, and so they will be condemned (Jn 3:36).

After the Last Judgment these condemned persons will spend their eternal existence in the darkness (Mt 22:13) of the damnation of the eternal fire (Mt 18:8), with weeping and gnashing of teeth (Mt 13:49-50) over the fact that they refused to come to faith while they were alive and have now come to realize that they can never again make up for it, and so cannot ever expect any further change in their condition.

Those who have been forgiven, on the other hand, will spend their eternal life (Mt 25:46) in the light of God on a new earth (Rev 20:11) and under a new sky created by God (Rev 21:1-3, 5).

In the light of this, the well known evangelist and preacher Wilhelm Busch said to his hearers, „You don’t need to accept the message I am giving you. You can choose not to convert to Jesus. But just be aware that this means you are choosing hell! You have complete freedom – it’s your choice!” (Discourse 55)

(See also discourse 22: “Is there such a thing as the immortality of the soul?”)